AJAX Support in Struts 2.0


Ajax or Asynchronous JavaScript and XML was introduced by Jesse James Garrett in 2005. He is called the “Father of Ajax” .Ajax is a collection of concepts and technologies that allows richer and more interactive user interaction with the web applications. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon, waiting around for the server to do something.

also read:

Who is using AJAX

The most popular and the biggest user of AJAX is Google. Orkut, Gmail, the latest beta version of Google Groups, Google Suggest, and Google Maps — are Ajax applications Google mail, Google calendar and Google home page are some examples. In your Google mailbox the “loading” that is displayed in the top right corner is using these Ajax technologies. The new Yahoo homepage too uses some of these technologies. Another cool Ajax implemented website would be www.pageflakes.com Others are following suit: many of the features that people love in Flickr depend on Ajax, and Amazon’s A9.com search engine applies similar techniques.

The BackScreen of Ajax

In traditional webpages, the pages will be reloaded for each and every request. But in most of the cases only a part of the page will be processed. Hence such a page reload is unnecessary. Thus the usage of ajax plays a efficient role. In the webpages, that are using ajax, only the part of the page that has to be processed will be transferred to the web server and the processed data will be loaded in the page without a page reload.

AJAX internals

AJAX is not a single technology as mentioned earlier. It is important to remember that AJAX is not Java or .NET dependent.

Whatever be your back end code, you can use AJAX to communicate with it. People prefer AJAX for the high speed with which it works. It does it with three basic ways

  • Better utilization of browser cache
  • Batching up of network requests in a single packet to reduce network latency issues
  • Decreasing the workload on the server by not requiring it to process the entire page

Where can we use AJAX

Web based forms are slow. AJAX can definitely improve the performance of web-based formsUser Communication:
User communications like chat pages, voting’s and ratings can be done efficiently using AJAX
RSS feed is another popular concept where AJAX can be used
Data Manipulation:
This includes some sort of filtering data, selecting names from one combo box to another, sorting data, invoking the suggest criteria or a hint

Defining Ajax

As we have seen an introduction to AJAX, let us try to define it. Ajax isn’t a technology. It’s really several technologies, each flourishing in its own right, coming together in powerful new ways. Ajax incorporates:

  • Standards-based presentation using XHTML and CSS;
  • Dynamic display and interaction using the Document Object Model;
  • Data interchange and manipulation using XML and XSLT;
  • Asynchronous data retrieval using XMLHttpRequest;

And JavaScript binding everything together.
So, how does AJAX does this sending request and getting response from the backend server??

Using the XML Http Request object.

XML Http Request object

The XML HttpRequest was introduced by Microsoft in Internet Explorer 5.0. Recently , Mozilla and apple have included support for this in their web browsers(Firefox and Safari).This object is the fundamental basis for Ajax. Microsoft implementation is different from that of other web browsers, so when you create this object in your code, you need to do a typical browser check.

For Internet Explorer, we can create this object using,

Var req = new ActiveXObject(“Microsoft.XMLHTTP”);

For firefox and safari,

Var req = new XMLHttpRequest();

Struts and Ajax in Action

As we have seen enough of the theory behind the working of Ajax in struts let us see an example. Simple example is loading a drop down depending on the selected item in another drop down. We need to populate the characters in a “showcharacters” dropdown when a particular TV Show is selected in the “showTVShow” drop down using AJAX. Let us see the Ajax request response cycle for this scenario.

Fig 1.1 Ajax Request Response Cycle

Step 1: Create a jsp page (“tvshow.jsp”)

Let us take three TV shows which I like.”Lisse Maguire”,” That’s so Raven” and “Dhoom Machallo Dhoom”. We need to populate the characters dropdown as and when the TV Show dropdown value changes , so we decide to call the javascript in the “onchange()” of the select box.

 <html:form action="showCharacters.do">
		TV Show:
		<html:select property="TVShowSelect"
						onchange="retrieveURL(' showCharacters.do?tvShow=' + this.value);">
			<html:option value="Lissie Maguire"> Lissie Maguire </html:option>
			<html:option value="That’s so Raven"> That’s so Raven </html:option>
			<html:option value="Dhoom machale"> Dhoom machale </html:option>
		Characters: <span id="characters"></span>

Here we are sending a URL to the Java script function.

 “’ showCharacters.do?tvShow=' + this.value”

We are appending the selected item with the URL as a query string. We can also just send the Url and append the form contents in the java script.

Step:2 Making the AJAX Call to the Server

In the java script we need to create a XML HttpRequest object

 	function retrieveURL(url)
	if (window.XMLHttpRequest)
	// Non-IE browsers
				req = new XMLHttpRequest();
				req.onreadystatechange = processStateChange;
				try {
					 req.open("GET", url, true);
				} catch (e) {
			} else if (window.ActiveXObject) { // IE

				 req = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
				if (req) {
					 req.onreadystatechange = processStateChange;
					 req.open("GET", url, true);

Within the retrieveURL() method, the line req.onreadystatechange = processStateChange (note: no brackets) tells the browser to call the processStateChange() method once the server sends back its response. This method (now standard in AJAX) also determines whether it should use the Internet Explorer (ActiveX) or Netscape/Mozilla (XmlHttpRequest) object to ensure cross-browser compatibility.

Now when the XMLHttpRequest object is created , we ask the browser to call the processstatechange method when we get the response from the server.

Step 3: Configure action path in struts-config

This is the same old struts functioning.

“’showCharacters.do” is configured in the struts-config.xml


 <action path="/showCharacters " type="ShowTVAction" validate="false" >
			<forward name="success" path="/pages/showCharacters.jsp" />

Step 4: Write the action class

The action class has to get the value selected in the TVShow dropdown and Get the appropriate list of characters using the function getCharacters(String tvShow) .

 public class ShowTVAction extends Action {

	public ActionForward execute(ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm inForm, HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {

		 // Get a list of characters associated with the select TV show
		 String tvShow = (String)request.getParameter("tvShow");
			if (tvShow == null) {
				 tvShow = "";
			ArrayList characters = getCharacters(tvShow);
			request.getSession().setAttribute("characters", characters);
		 return mapping.findForward("success");
	  } // End execute()

	  // This method returns a list of characters for a given TV show.  If no TV
	  // show is selected, i.e., initial page view, am empty ArrayList is returned.

	  private ArrayList getCharacters (String tvShow) {

		 ArrayList al = new ArrayList();

			if (tvShow.equalsIgnoreCase("Lissie Mcguire")) {
				 al.add("Lizzie Mcguire");
				 al.add("Mathew Mcguire");

		 if (tvShow.equalsIgnoreCase("That’s so Raven ")) {
				al.add("Victor Backstor");
				al.add("Cory Backstor");

		if (tvShow.equalsIgnoreCase("Dhoom machale ")) {

			return al;

	  } // End getCharacters()

	} // End class

Then it sets the Appropriate characters in the session and returns the keyword “success” Thus the control passes to showCharacters.jsp

Step 5: Write the contents you need to reload in the characters drop down (“ShowCharacters.jsp”)

In the showCharacters.jsp we load the contents of the characters drop down by taking their values from the session. Remember to add the tag libraries and surround the code with a form tag.


 <html:select property="TVShowSelect">
		  <logic:present name="characters">
				<%ArrayList ch = (ArrayList)  request.getSession().getAttribute("characters");
				String[] s = new String[ch.size()];
				for(int i=0;i<s.length;i++)
					 <html:option value ="<%=s[i] %>" ></html:option>
				<%} %>

Thus the showCharacters.jsp is the response from the Back end server. Once the response form the server is got by the browser. It calls the processStateChange() method

Step 6: Updating the Web Page with the AJAX Response

So far, we have looked at the JavaScript to do the AJAX call (listed above) and the Struts Action, ActionForm, and JSP (mostly the same, with the addition of tags). To complete our understanding of the Struts-AJAX project, we need to look at the following JavaScript function that is responsible for updating the current web page when the results from the server are received.

processStateChange(): The method name that we set before making the AJAX call. The XMLHttpRequest/Microsoft.XMLHTTP object calls this method once the server has completed sending back its response.

 function processStateChange() {
			if (req.readyState == 4) { // Complete
			if (req.status == 200) { // OK response
					document.getElementById("characters").innerHTML = req.responseText;
			} else {
				 alert("Problem: " + req.statusText);

Here readystate is checked .If it is equal to 4 , it means the response is completely received and the status of the response is checked to 200.

If everything fit in, the response is set as the innerHTML of the span “characters”. We can also give the response to a div.

Thus we have done a asynchronous call to the back end and got the response and set it to a span element. Only the contents of the span have been reloaded while the rest of the page remained there.

Flow of Control

By adding the above JavaScript code to our application, the following steps now happen on the server and on the browser.

  • The page loads as per a normal Struts application.
  • The user changes a dropdown value, triggering an onChange() event, which calls the retrieveURL() JavaScript function
  • This JavaScript function makes a (background) call to the Struts Action on the server
  • This JavaScript function also sets the name of a second JavaScript function, which will be called when the server response is finished. In this case, it is set to the processStateChange() method.
  • As expected, when the server response is finished, the processStateChange() method is called.
  • The JavaScript sets the response to a span in the page

New Features in Struts 2.0 for AJAX

One of the useful enhancements in Struts 2.0 is the introduction of AJAX Theme

The Ajax theme extends the xhtml theme with AJAX features. The theme uses the popular DOJO AJAX/JavaScript toolkit. The new AJAX features include:

  • AJAX Client Side Validation
  • Remote form submission support (works with the submit tag as well)
  • An advanced div template that provides dynamic reloading of partial HTML
  • An advanced a template that provides the ability to load and evaluate JavaScript remotely
  • An AJAX-only tabbed Panel implementation
  • A rich pub-sub event model
  • Interactive auto complete tag

The framework provides a set of tags to help you ajaxify your applications, on Dojo.

To use the Ajax tags you need to set the “theme” attribute to “Ajax”.Use the head tag to configure the page for the Ajax theme.


The “href” attribute must contain a url built with the URL tag

  Initial Content

Set the “debug” attribute of the head tag to “true” to display debug information on the bottom of the page


Use indicators to notify the user that a request is in progress. The indicator should be hidden when the page is loaded.

Dynamic Div

The div tag is a content area that can load its content asynchronously. The div tag can be forced to reload its content using topics. To define the topics that will trigger the refresh of the panel, use the “listenTopics” attribute. This tag will load its content when the page is loaded, unless “autoStart” is set to “false”.
While Dojo supports crossdomain XHR using IFrames, the S2 Ajax tags do not (yet)

This div will refresh every time the topics “/refresh0″ or “/refresh1″ are published:

to publish a topic use.


Retrieve Remote Data

The simplest way to use the div tag is to provide an href attribute. For example

What this does after the HTML page is completely loaded; the specified URL will be retrieved asynchronously in the browser. The entire contents returned by that URL will be injected in to the div and will update every minute after a two second delay: Include the attribute errorText in case the URL is not loaded

 errorText="Unable to contact weather server"


The submit tag can be used to update the content of its “targets” attribute with text returned from the asynchronous request. “targets” is a comma-delimited list of element ids. The “targets” attribute is optional.

Regular submit button that will update the content of div1:

Div 1

For using Submit button using an image add the attribute src


If the submit button is used inside a form (href is not required on this case), the form will be submitted asynchronously using
A submit button can be used to submit a form, even if it is outside the form, using “formId”, “formFilter” and “href”. Note that in this case “href” is required.

  <input type="textbox" name="data" />


The anchor tag, like the submit tag; can be used to update the content of its “targets” attribute with text returned from the asynchronous request. “Targets” is a comma-delimited list of element ids. The “targets” attribute is optional.

This anchor will update the content of div1 and div2 with text returned form “/AjaxTest.action”

Div 1
Div 2

Update divs If the anchor tag is used inside a form (href is not required on this case), the form will be submitted asynchronously:

	  <input type="textbox" name="data" />
	  Submit form

Using the anchor tag to submit a form:

	  <input type="textbox" name="data" />

	Submit form

AJAX Client Side Validation

  • Ajax Validation requires DWR servlet being setup, Dojo and the Ajax theme being used.
  • In the Ajax theme, DWR is used for normal validation while Dojo handles everything else (widgets, XHR, browser JS events etc.)
  • In order for validation to function properly it is advised to use standard Struts Tags

Setup DWR

DWR could be setup by having the following dwr configuration (dwr.xml) at /WEB-INF/ directory. If it needs to be in other places.


A DWRServlet need to be registered with the web application as well. The following shows a typical web.xml with DWRSerlvet.



	<!-- JavaServer Faces Servlet Configuration, not used directly -->


		<!-- JavaServer Faces Servlet Mapping, not called directly -->



Add a form attribute

Add the attribute validate to the. The validate=”true” option is set for thetag to enable onblur-triggered validation

 Validation - Basic

Now as usual have a form bean for this form with getters and setters and constructors, and configure the validation.xml for required fields

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This is a simple introduction to Ajax.Start implementing it and you will find it simple, easy and attractive. One can use it to do many different things. It all accounts your creativity. It is a good approach in many cases, but will not be appropriate in others. If reaching the maximum possible audience is your goal, you would want to stay away from this. If a user disabling scripting in their browser might be a concern (and your site wouldn’t be any good without it), this probably isn’t a good answer either. There are other reasons to stay away from it in some situations, but the bottom line is treat it like any other tool in your toolbox: it will be right for some jobs, maybe “not so” for others.



About Krishna Srinivasan

He is Founder and Chief Editor of JavaBeat. He has more than 8+ years of experience on developing Web applications. He writes about Spring, DOJO, JSF, Hibernate and many other emerging technologies in this blog.

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